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The first major
historical text on Australian community corrections has been
PROBATION AND PAROLE
SERVICES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
By Jay Harley
This substantial dissertation encapsulates the historical development of two distinct organisations which became one. The Adult Probation Service and the Parole Service were both inaugurated in New South Wales in 1951 under the Crimes (Amendment) Bill.
The establishment of these organisations into New South Wales was an eventual response to the crude legal systems which had operated since penal colonies began almost two centuries earlier. This dissertation contextualises the penal history and illustrates the methodologies of probation and parole progenitors.
Broadly, the role of the Adult Probation Service was to provide supervision and guidance to persons who, having been charged with an offence, were released by the Courts on their recognizance to be of good behaviour. Offenders retained their liberty in the community, but were legally bound by conditions placed upon them by the Court.
Officers of the Parole Service worked inside the prisons, providing counselling and assisting inmates with release arrangements. They worked with community organisations in terms of securing accommodation, employment, and meeting basic welfare needs.
Dr Harley's work examines the changing roles of Probation Officers and Parole Officers over fifty years. It describes the systemic and legislative influences which contributed to the changes, and it also explores the organisational dynamics which occurred as a result. This is not a dissertation about offenders, crime statistics or trends in criminal behaviour. Such literature is readily available. It is about the growth of an organisation and the people who were part of that growth. It describes the way parole and probation services have developed and augmented the criminal justice system. This dissertation is the first work of its kind.
Since 1951 the two Services have amalgamated, separated, and re-amalgamated. These jurisdictional changes have had significant impact upon culture and morale, and at times have seriously affected the health of the organisation. The chronicle of the Probation and Parole Service has been described by a long-serving senior Officer as a "history of struggle". These struggles have, at times, obscured the organisation's accomplishments.
The book has attempted to provide a balanced examination of the contribution of this major community correctional organisation in New South Wales.
Chapter 1: Theoretical and Penal Background - The historical influences upon community correctional practice.
Part 1: Formalised community corrections; Probation; Parole; Psychological differences; Involuntary clients. Part 2: Theoretical background; Criminological schools of thought; Social work; Absence of theory; Developments in criminological thought. Part 3: Penal and legislative development; Origin and development of parole; Effects of the Industrial Revolution; Transportation to New South Wales; Parole development internationally; Legislation; Convict days in Australia; Ticket of Leave; Royal Prerogative; Role of the Churches; Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society; NSW Prisoners' Aid Association; Rehabilitation in Prisons; Major developments.
Chapter 2: The Parole Service and The Adult Probation Service in the 1950s
Part 1: The Parole Service; Appointment and training; Social work ethos; Role; Prison Officers; The developing Parole Service; Institutional visits; Caseloads; Civil Rehabilitation Committees; Expansion of parole services. Part 2: The Adult Probation Service; Staff Establishment; Recruitment and Training; Expansion of probation services; Salary Claim Submission; Evolving Probation practice; The first Pre-Sentence Report and case history file; Pre-Sentence Reports; Reflections.
Chapter 3: The Parole Service and The Adult Probation Service in the 1960s
Part 1: The Parole Service; Staff establishment and training; Role; Reception Board; Transitional services and support for prisoners' families; Deterioration of standards; Degrees of supervision; Social work ethos; Civil Rehabilitation Committees; Australian Prison After-Care Council; Group Counselling; Refinement and policy; Parole of Prisoners Act 1966; The Act and the sociology of parole. Part 2: The Adult Probation Service; Training; Female Probation Officers; The need for decentralisation; Special Report into the Adult Probation Service; Probation supervision; Effects of the emerging drug culture; Pre- Sentence Reports. Part 3: Commencement of amalgamation of the Adult Probation Service and the Parole Service; Rationale; Amalgamated administration and ideology; Integration.
Chapter 4: The Amalgamated Probation and Parole Services in the 1970s
Amalgamation; A direction for change; Social work and staffing debate; Amendments to the Parole of Prisoners Act 1966; Culture, conflict and celebration; 21st Birthday celebration; Probation and Parole Journal; Recruitment; Decentralisation - five year plan; Royal Commission Committee; Directed Country Transfer Policy; Expansion of rural prison services; Expansion of rural community work; Workload and resources; National Association of Probation and Parole; Probation and Parole Officers' Association; Standards Advisory Committee; 25 years of service - the challenges continue; End of an era; Management Group; Program initiatives; Attendance Centres; Supervised hostels; Nagle Royal Commission into New South Wales Prisons; Alternative approaches to sentencing - Parole system; Muir Committee; Probation supervision; Work Release - The "Silverwater Experiment"; Community Service Order Scheme; Pre-Sentence Reports; Service objectives and direction; new methods and initiatives; The Hawkesbury Conference.
Chapter 5: The Probation and Parole Services in the 1980s
The vision threatened; Growing apathy; New era; Management; Staff establishment and training; Workload crisis; Benefit to rural areas; Directed Transfer Policy; Privacy Committee; Pre-Sentence Reports; Probation Act; Release on License; Amendments to the Parole of Prisoners Act 1966; Probation and Parole Act; Community Corrections Act Committee; Sentencing Act 1989 - Truth in Sentencing; Service operations; Work Release; Community Service Order Scheme; Fine Default Scheme; Program initiatives and new methods; The Liverpool Experiment; Attendance Centres; Case Management System; Australian Bicentennial International Congress on Corrective Services; Senior Executive Service; Portfolio and Productivity cuts.
Chapter 6: The Probation and Parole Service in the 1990s
Hopes for improved legislation; Major organisational change - Courts Administration; The separation of Probation and Parole; Concerns about the Sentencing Act 1989; Escalating prison population; Review of Community Corrections Service; Probation Service Management Restructure; 1994 Probation Service Conference; Re-amalgamation of Parole and Probation; Post re-amalgamation and restructure; Review of Management Restructure; Further Review; Service Evaluation; Attendance Centres; Offender Management Programs; Work practice initiatives; Supervision of special needs offenders; Regional Co-ordination Program; Managing the workload - methodologies and constraints; "Programs 2000 - Preparation for Change"; Bowral Managers' Conference; "Shelf" programs; Case Management System; Workload Study; Court Advice program; Community Service Order Scheme; Changes to the Fine Default Scheme; Intensive Community Supervision; Home Detention Scheme; Drug Court Trial; Officer training and development; Response to high risk offenders; Best Practice Framework; Risk Assessment; Probation Information Management System; Probation and Parole Officers' Association; National Association; Challenges; "A History of Struggle".
Chapter 7: The Probation and Parole Service in the New Millenium
Organisational culture; Historical development - a
reflection; Operations and initiatives;
"Where Two Ways Meet" was published in June 2009, funded by the Probation and Parole Officers' Association of New South Wales, Australia.
Phone 0424 187 967
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The Difference Between Coaching and Training
(Journal article prepared for the International Coaching Federation)
Dr Jay Harley
Aim: To overview the role that 'training' plays in the coaching experience.
With the emergence of coaching as a profession has come the alignment of many therapeutic, business and organisational skills. As coach training bodies have developed, so too have coaching models been developed, trialled, amended and sanctioned. In encouraging more thought about this, I would challenge the notion that there exists any such thing as "purist" coaching.
When I undertook my coach training, I learned that as long as I did not bring therapeutic techniques into coaching, nor be tempted to glimpse into the client's past, I could offer the closest service to "purist" coaching as was possible. I also learned that to be an effective coach, I had to be the client's personal trainer, mentor and manager. So it seemed to me that some skills were taboo, and others encouraged. My own personal journey as a coach has involved the development of my own style, inclusive of any knowledge, skills and expertise I may have gathered through life. And yes, I have occasionally done some therapeutic work with a client, on a particular aspect, to bring them fully into the "now". On these occasions, it was a necessary process which enabled the client to move forward positively and successfully in their goal-oriented coaching journey. Added to the emergence of coaching models and rules of operation, is the eclecticism brought to the profession by its practitioners. As I, and other coaches, have proved, the experience of life and its lessons have intrinsically become part of our modus operandi.
So how then do we agree on techniques and rules, and define and differentiate coaching from other professions which are characteristically and similarly underpinned? In particular, and in response to the question raised by this article, I want to address the differences and similarities between coaching and training. Perhaps too, it is appropriate to put out the challenge to consider how appropriate it is to wear a trainer's hat as well as a coach's hat (assuming that the coach is, independently, an accredited trainer).
Training refers to the action of someone who trains. To train someone, by definition, is "to render proficient or qualified by instruction, or to educate". I believe that some coaches, by virtue of their expertise, may add value to the coaching experience by including aspects of training in selected parts of a coaching series. I can best illustrate this by example. I once coached a man who was an Information Technology whiz. His primary goals were to successfully operate his own business and open a franchise in New Zealand. He was at a loss as to where to start. As clever as he was with computers, he had no idea about business strategy and its numerous components. As his coach, I chose to (render him proficient, and to educate him in developing a Business Plan. This was a practice in which I was accomplished, although my knowledge of computers was next to zero. The client, under my guidance, developed and implemented his Business Plan, and today he has his business and his franchise.
In that example, "training" was a tool I used in the wider coaching context. It was not coaching, but a mechanism I employed to supplement and enhance the client's professional development.
New coaches may be forgiven for being confused about the difference between coaching and training. In traditional parlance, a coach has been described as "a private tutor or trainer". It is only in the evolution of Life and Business Coaching as a profession that the traditional definition is challenged. As part of the coach community, we are privileged to re-define coaching in a more circumscript way.
Like the other functions we may perform, such as managing, mentoring, brainstorming, encouraging, affirming, and challenging, I believe we can incorporate training into our coaching practice if we are skilled to do so. It is but one part of the whole, a tool to aid our work with a client. However, the tool can be effective if the coach suggests that the client obtain training from some other source, as part of their action plan in the coaching series. That's not to say that there aren't some potential limitations to referred training. For example, it is the organisation or company which usually dictates the training agenda. The imposition of the training program thus limits its flexibility, unlike coaching which encourages individuality and training to assist the achievement of client-determined goals. Even if a coaching client chooses to undertake some form of educational or training course, s/he is still restricted and governed by the curriculum. But training given by a coach who is also a qualified trainer can be tailormade and relevant.
In coaching, the client is the centre of the process, sets the agenda and is accountable for the outcomes. In the external training environment, the trainer is accountable, and the client competes and complies with the set agenda which must be adhered to within defined parameters.
The personal and individualised coaching process allows for a more collaborative and democratic involvement in outcomes. As coaches we believe that the client has the answers within themselves, and it is our role to assist them discover those answers and solutions by purposefully and strategically questioning the client. On the other hand, the training environment usually provides manuals, background reading and material which contain the desired outcomes and expectations dictated by another party. The ever-increasing trend towards competency-based training and assessment in organisations reinforces this.
In coaching, the onus of responsibility for results is upon the client, and in training, the onus of responsibility for results is upon the trainer.
The ultimate aim of coaching is the enhancement of learning and personal development which results in an holistically grounded and achieving person. This is the essence of coaching. Self-discovery is the pre-requisite to achieving challenging goals and enhancing quality of life.
Training is skills based and task-focussed, and is usually not geared towards personal self-discovery and enlightenment. Training has an identifiable beginning and an end. Whilst this also applies to goal-setting in coaching, the client's self-discovery throughout the process ideally is foundational and inspirational for them to keep building on the changes and successes they have had.
In summary, it must be stated that training is a necessary and useful process for the development of skills and the potential enhancement of performance. However, it does not generally influence significant psychological and behavioural change, challenge personal values and improve intrinsic motivation, like coaching does. An effective coaching experience comes from within. Training comes from without. In the coaching journey, training can play a helpful part, but it is just that - a part of a bigger experiential process coaching - which involves mind, body and soul.
Copyright. McDonald Harley & Associates Pty. Ltd. 2004
Hypoglycemic Health Association of Australia
Hypoglycemic Health Association of Australia
(PDF) Privatising Community
(PDF) Model for contracting out community
Bulletin April 2007 : File Format:
PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
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